All other data were analyzed using a two-tailed unpaired test to determine statistical significance between two experimental groups or a one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey post-test to compare multiple groups, unless otherwise noted

  • Post author:
  • Post category:HDACs

All other data were analyzed using a two-tailed unpaired test to determine statistical significance between two experimental groups or a one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey post-test to compare multiple groups, unless otherwise noted. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary Text and Figures(2.6M, docx) Acknowledgements VRC01-expressing B cells were kindly provided by Daniel Lingwood?from the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard. MD39-specific IgG responses compared to immunization with soluble MD39 trimers. A priming immunization with liposomal-MD39 was important for elicitation of high avidity antibody responses, regardless of whether booster immunizations were administered with either PP2 soluble or particulate trimers. The stability of trimer anchoring to liposomes was critical for these effects, as germinal center and output antibody responses were further increased by liposome compositions incorporating sphingomyelin that exhibited high stability in the presence of serum. Together these data highlight key liposome design features for optimizing humoral immunity to lipid nanoparticle immunogens. Introduction Despite recent global declines in HIV infection and AIDS-related deaths as a result of the increasing availability of anti-retroviral drugs, HIV remains a widespread pandemic with over 36 million living with HIV/AIDS as of 20161. To finally eliminate new HIV infections a prophylactic vaccine remains an urgent need. It is likely that a successful vaccine against HIV-1 will need to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that neutralize diverse strains of the virus2C4. Isolated bnAbs from rare individuals who are able to naturally control infection have been shown to target conserved regions of the HIV envelope spike on HIV, which is comprised of 3 copies of the subunits gp120 and gp41 non-covalently assembled into trimers. Passive transfer of bnAbs into non-human primates protects from challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus expressing HIV-1 envelopes5C8. In order to elicit such antibodies by immunization, recombinant env immunogens recapitulating the structure of the native trimer have been avidly pursued. These efforts have led to the generation of recombinant soluble trimers that preserve native neutralizing conformational epitopes targeted by many known bnAbs but which sequester epitopes PP2 commonly recognized by non-neutralizing antibodies9C14. A particularly successful strategy for generation of native-like gp140 trimers has been through the design of so-called SOSIP immunogens, fully cleaved trimers stabilized by gp120-gp41 disulfide bonds and mutation of critical residues promoting interactions between gp41 subunits9,15,16. Additional design modifications have further improved the antigenic profiles of native-like trimers13,17,18. Recent successes in employing SOSIP trimers to elicit for the first time autologous tier 2 neutralizing antibody titers in rabbits19 and non-human primates20 have spurred enthusiasm for exploring new avenues to further promote humoral responses to these immunogens. One such avenue is Rabbit polyclonal to CXCL10 the use of nanoparticles for the multivalent display of trimers, which could promote B cell activation and engagement of low affinity B cell precursors through enhanced B cell receptor (BCR) crosslinking. It has been widely demonstrated that particulate display of antigens, in the forms of virus-like particles, synthetic nanoparticle platforms, or protein/peptide nanoparticles and nanocarriers, can significantly boost humoral responses and the development of protective antibody responses compared to monomeric immunogens21C26. In the context of HIV vaccine development, both protein- and lipid-based nanoparticles have previously been reported and shown to enhance humoral responses to trimer immunogens27C29. Alternatively, unilamellar liposomes have a well-established track record as safe and effective drug delivery vehicles in humans, as demonstrated by currently approved liposome-based drugs (e.g. Doxil, Myocet, and Marqibo for cancer therapy, DepoDur for pain management, Ambisome for treatment of fungal infections, and several others) and formerly approved vaccines (e.g. Epaxal? for hepatitis A and Inflexal? V for influenza; both were discontinued in 2014 due to manufacturing quality issues)30. Given their ability to be prepared in a PP2 range of particle sizes and capacity to be conjugated to any antigen of interest, we and others have demonstrated that stabilized trimers can be densely conjugated to the surface of unilamellar liposomes using both non-covalent18,31 and covalent20,32 coupling strategies. Here we explored properties of a liposomal nanoparticle platform that allows for both oriented and stable conjugation of HIV envelope trimers. Trimer-conjugated liposomes improved both germinal center (GC) B cell and trimer-specific T follicular helper (Tfh) cell responses, resulting in significantly.